Three Band Clownfish
Image Source: Andrej Jakubik

Three Band-Clownfish; All about Aquarium Set up, Care, and Breeding

Quite well and beloved fish “Three-band Clownfish ” is a sturdy and reliable anemonefish. It is a member of the enduring Clarkii Complex. They are also known as Three-band Clownfish, Three Striped Clownfish, Three-Banded Anemonefish, Three Striped Clown, and Three Band Anemonefish.     

Fish keepers usually pick them because they are easy to keep and care for. The hue of the Tricinctus Clownfish is distinctive, ranging from golden yellow to black and everything else in between. Three white-vertical bands of varying widths appear on the black variation. Despite the fact that certain clownfish have just 2 bands, these fish have darker caudal fins that are substantially long in size than those of others. Mostly, all types of clownfish emit audible shrieking or cracking sounds, but some are noisier than others, and each has its own vernacular.

In an adult pair, these fish will battle tooth and nail to keep their mother anemone or corals safe, particularly at the time of egg hatching. A male and female pair would result from two juveniles. All clownfish are undifferentiated when they are born, but they are sexual switchers once they reach adulthood on certain clues. The one which is larger in size becomes female.

three Band clownfish in aquarium
Image Source: fishtankadvisor

These could be kept in a cluster, but due to their energizing and moderately-aggressive nature, it is difficult to keep them in a group. The best tank mate can be determined by the aquarium’s size. It is recommended to house Clarkii-complex members away from other species of clownfish.  Place these fish in an aquarium with no fish that could devour them. Continue reading to learn more about “their particular behavior, aquarium care, reproduction, and diseases they could have in a poor aquarium environment.” 

Background: Schultz and Welander discussed Amphiprion tricinctus in 1953.

Scientific Name: Amphiprion tricinctus

Family: Pomacentridae

Habitat/Range: As bottom dwellers, Three-band clownfish are distributed in the Western Pacific Ocean. These fish could be found off the coast of Caledonia Island, in the greater depths of the Marshal Islands, east of the Coral Sea, at further south.


The Three-Band Ensemble of the Clarkii Complex’s Anemonefish is a fish of deeper water. In some cases, the long dorsal-fin drops down in the center, giving the impression that there are two dorsal fins. The caudal fin’s fork is narrow and shallow. They come in a variety of colors, ranging from bright yellow to completely black, but orange is the most prevalent.

On the black morph, they normally have three vertical white bands or stripes that vary in width. These bands could be located across the eye and in the center of the body, and at the base of the tail fin. They are black in color, and the black hue may reach into the upper posterior area of the body, commonly just after the 2nd band with growing age and in different varieties.  A small area of the abdomen is normally orange among the 1st and 2nd bands. Except for the all-black color variant, their funs on pectoris, pelvis, and anas are all orange.

The back half of the dorsal fin is browner to black in darker specimens, and some creatures have dark pigmentation on the tips. The color of the caudal fin is dark. The iris of the orange color morphs is orange, while the iris of the black color morphs is darker. These have a darker dorsal fin and the most of three band clowns have the third tail fin stripe.

Three Band Clownfish Size: 

The Red Three-band Clownfish measures approximately 5.1 inches (13.00 cm) tall. Females are bigger in size than males.

Three Band Clownfish Color: 

 These are the color differences in them:

  •  The body is entirely-black with 3 white-stripes and without orange color. 
  • All orange with three white vertical stripes edged in black and a dark tail fin (some may only have two stripes). 
  • The upper back and the last part of the dorsal-fin, which occurs after the second stripe, are orange with three vertical stripes trimmed in black, although dark brown in the shoulders and back, as well as the dorsal-fin’s final segment, which comes after the second stripe. Between the first and second stripes, they still retain an orange tummy.
  • Orange to brown face with muddy orange coloration. There’s orange with brown-dots among 1st and 2nd vertical bands and tiny flecks. Just after the middle band, these fish turn dark-brown to black in the backside, with an orange belly and further spatters of dark pigment across the belly.

Difference between males and females Three Band Clownfish

Males have a smaller stature than females. Males are sexually mature at 2.4-2.8 inches and females at 2.8-3.1 inches. As males become older, their noses become lighter in color.

Three Band Clownfish Lifespan:

 15 years – As to one official at Oceanic, Coral reef & Fish tanks (ORA), the male and female Tricinctus Clownfish pair live up to 15 to 20 years old.

Behavior and Temperament:

The Tricinctus, often known as the Three Band Anemonefish, is a semi-aggressive species. They can be kept in either a coral or a fish-only aquarium. They can be territorial and aggressive, particularly as they grow older. They can be kept with other fish, however, the size and setup of the tank will have an impact on compatibility.

Care level:

Easy to Care. Three-band clownfish is recommended for beginners since it’s easy to care for and reasonably a hardy fish. The recommendation is especially true as they breed in an aquarium but are quite resistant to many of the lethal illnesses and viruses. 

Three-band anemonefish captured in the wild probably take longer to adjust to their new environment. They will take some time to adjust to the new environment; providing them with live meals and filtered clean water will aid them to acclimate. Before you are going to buy these fish, keep an eye on them for a week/so in the merchant’s tank to make sure they’re adjusting.

Inquire when these fish have to be fed, and keep an eye out for things like proper feed and attentiveness. This is also the greatest time to carefully check the fish because they’re not in a closed environment and any concerns with their health can be seen more easily. Avoid the fish that is lethargic or uninterested, is eating less, or has a little appetite. Buying wild-caught fish directly from a distributor could also be effective.

A Dip in freshwater with formalin and malachite green shortly after you bring them home can help avoid common infections, but it isn’t necessary if they come from a reputable supplier, you believe in the purity of the aquarium, and cleanliness. With an anemone, your options for tank-mates expand owing to the added protection the sea anemone provides to clownfish.

READ  Red Tail Shark - Tankmates, Diet, and Care Guide

Conservation Status:

 On coral reefs, anemonefish and their host anemones encounter environmental challenges due to human-impact on the coral-reef. Anemones, like corals, have intracellular endosymbionts called zooxanthellae that can bleach when exposed to stimuli like higher water temperatures or acidity. Small geographic ranges, tiny local populations, and great environmental challenges are all known to increase the danger of extinction.

Three-Band Anemonefish Feeding Guide

Feed: Foods that seem to be extremely cold, flaked, or active

Diet: Three-band Anemonefish eat all kinds of things (omnivores). In nature, these fish feed algae and copepods, but they’ll also eat sponges, barnacle appendages, worms and crab-fragments, tunicate-larvae.

Flake Food: Yes

Pellet/Tablet: Yes

Live foods (shrimp, fish, or worms): A few of the diets – live meals can be offered as a pleasure or when training to reproduce on a regular basis.

Vegetable Food: 50% of their diet

Meaty Food: 50% of their diet

Feeding Frequency: Feeding times throughout the day – Feed twice a day for adults and three to four times a day for juveniles. Increase the feed three times a day if you have a pair of Three-band Clownfish in the reproductive phase.

AQUARIUM CONDITIONS for Three Band Clownfish

Tank size:  30 gals (114 L) – For a fish-only tank, a minimum 30-gallon tank is suggested; however, if having an anemone, a larger tank, 55 gallons or more, is required.

Suitable for Nano Tank: No

Tank Setup: The aquarium should be decorated with ocean shells or coral, which seem gorgeous, but the reason for this is that Three-band clownfish get along with corals.

Tank Lightning: Lightning isn’t an issue until you have an anemone. It’ll be hard to maintain it alive in a sea-anemone tank. Anemone necessitates a powerful lighting system.

Live Rock Requirement: Live rock is required for hiding places. Especially, when there aren’t any anemones available, rock formations with enough hiding areas are necessary.

Substrate Type: Any

Maintenance of the tank: 

Daily: Monitor the water purifier, surface temperature, particle density, and all other equipment in the aquarium on a daily basis. 

Weekly: Check the water quality at least once a week. 

Monthly: Each 2-4 weeks/as needed, replace up to 10 to 25%  of the entire amount of water. Periodic introduction of new tank mates is also important.

Equipments and Tank setting

The Three Band Anemonefish is a large, energetic clownfish that requires a tank with a minimum capacity of 30 (114 L). Once it has become used to its surroundings, it is a daring fish that will swim to the surface to eat. Make sure there is enough open room for it to swim freely. It also requires boulders with several nooks and crevices in which to hide. It will benefit by having a host anemone, but it is not required. As a replacement host, this clownfish will easily accept another animal or rock structure. Whoever their host is, they will spend most of their life with them.

If you’re going to keep this clownfish with an anemone, the tank size and needs should be determined by the anemone. Although the flow of water is not important, this clownfish requires sluggish circulating in certain sections of the aquarium in order to feed.

Because this species prefers tropical environments, keeping tank water temperatures between exceeding 90° F (32° C) or below 64° F (18° C) would be too much for them. The ideal temperature for spawning is between 79°F and 83°F (26°C and 28°C). A pH range of 8.1 to 8.4 is OK to them.

List of equipments that are required for a saltwater aquarium:

  1. Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)
  2. Power strip/surge protector
  3. Tank
  4. Tank stand
  5. Bio-Wheel Filters
  6. Reverse Osmosis Unit or Deionizer 
  7. Salt mix 
  8. Hydrometer
  9. Digital pH Monitor
  10. Aquarium Photo Background or Paint the background
  11. Test kits
  12.  Buckets, Towels, Rubber Gloves
  13. Substrate
  14. Refugium
  15. Trace Elements
  16. Aquarium vacuum
  17. Live Rock / Decorative rocks or coral 
  18. Heater
  19. Thermometer
  20. Saltwater test kit
  21. UV Aquarium Sterilizers
  22. Lights 
  23. Powerhead and sweeper
  24. Protein Skimmer 
  25. Salinity Meter
  26. Reverse Osmosis System (RO/DI Unit)
  27. Wave Maker and Power Head
  28. Algae Scraper
  29. Media Reactor 
  30. Carbon and GFO

Three Band Anemonefish Water Parameters

The following are some critical water parameters for Three band clownfish:

ParameterSuggested Level FOSuggested Level FOWLRSuggested Level Reef
Specific Gravity1.020-1.0251.020-1.0251.023-1.025
Alkalinity8-12 dKH8-12 dKH8-12 dKH
Ammonia (NH3)UndetectableUndetectableUndetectable
Nitrite (NO2)UndetectableUndetectableUndetectable
Nitrate – Nitrogen (NO3)< 30.0 ppm< 30.0 ppm< 1.0 ppm
Phosphate (PO4)< 1.0 ppm< 1.0 ppm< 0.2 ppm
Calcium350-450 ppm350-450 ppm350-450 ppm
Magnesium1150-1350 ppm1150-1350 ppm1250-1350 ppm
Iodine0.04-0.10 ppm0.04-0.10 ppm0.06-0.10 ppm
Strontium4-10 ppm4-10 ppm8-14 ppm

Water Temperature during Breeding:  79.0° F – While they will mate at temperatures ranging from 72°-88° F (26°-28°C), it has been proven that the top-quality eggs and larvae are produced at temperatures ranging from 79°-83° F (26°-28°C).

Brackish Water Needed: No

Water Movement: Any- Set aside a section of the tank with a calmer flow of water where they may easily sustain.

Water Region: Overall – They generally stick together when housed with an anemone or reef substrate.

Water Hardness: 18 dGH

Water Changes: Water should be changed two times a week – Do the water changes of fifteen percent every two weeks or thirty percent a month. In the presence of corals in the aquarium, it should be five percent weekly to fifteen percent every two weeks, based on the size of the tank.

Cost: $80-$120

Compatibility: Community safe

Aquarium Hardiness: Extremely hardy

Prone to Disease: No

Three Striped Clownfish Tank Mates

Compatible Other Fish:

The Tricinctus should not be kept with many other clownfish species because of their hostility against them. The differences in behavior between clownfish of the same species are fascinating and easy to spot. A female’s continuous dominance prevents a male from changing gender. A dominant clownfish will exhibit “agonistic conduct,” whereas the inferior clownfish will exhibit “appeaser behavior.”

The subservient clownfish react to the aggressor fish’s particular actions:

  • If the angry fish, usually a female, is chasing and chirping, the inferior clownfish, which can be a male or a dragonfly nymph, will quickly shiver their body and make clicking sounds as they glide upward.
  • The violent clown fish’s jaw snapping causes the subordinated clownfish to shake their body or head.
  • The hostile clownfish’s ventral lean causes the submissive clownfish to tremble.
  • When a hostile clownfish exhibits dorsal leaning, the subordinate clownfish exhibits lateral leaning.

A list of compatible tank mates for Three band Clownfish are given below:

Peaceful fish: (But need to monitor, when place in a mini-tank) 

  • Gobies
  • Dartfish
  • Assessors 
  • Fairy wrasses
READ  Percula Clownfish - A Complete Guide

Semi-Aggressive: (But need to monitor and don’t place with any-other clown)

  • Anthias 
  • Clownfish 
  • Dwarf angels

Aggressive: (But need to monitor and place in a big aquarium)

  • Dottybacks 
  • 6-Line & 8-Line 
  • Wrasse Damselfish

Large Semi-Aggressive: 

  • Tangs 
  • Large Angels 
  • Large Wrasses

Large Aggressive: (But need to monitor because they might eat them)

  • Lionfish 
  • Groupers
  • Soapfish

Shrimps, Crabs, Snails: (But need to monitor because they might eat them)

Sponges, Tunicates: (But need to monitor because they might eat them)


  • Starfish
  • Feather Dusters
  • Bristle Worms
  • Flatworms
  • Clams, Scallops 
  • Oysters
  • Copepods
  • Amphipods 
  • Mini Brittle Stars

Non-compatible tank mates: These could be the worst tank-mates with three band anemonefish:

Slow Swimmers & Eaters:

  • Seahorses
  • Pipefish 
  • Mandarins


  • Triggerfish
  • Eels
  • Batfish
  • Some Puffers
  • Sharks/Rays
  • Wrasse-fish only

In each aquarium, only maintain one kind of clown. It’s not a good idea to drink clown species.

Symbiotic Relationship with Sea-anemones: 

Symbiosis is a connection in which a clownfish and a sea anemone work together to help each other. In both wild and aquarium environments, clownfish stick with specific anemones to protect them from anemone-eating fish. In exchange, the anemone shields the clownfish from attackers by using its stinging tendrils to keep them at bay. Clownfish become resistant to the anemone’s tentacles’ sting. Another advantage is that the clownfish can eat the leftovers of any food that the anemone has grabbed. The clownfish will also clean up after themselves by eliminating bits of trash from the bottom by using their tentacles while swimming. The anemone is also supposed to be fed by the Clownfish’s excrement. Here are some anemones preferred for Three-band clowns:

  • The Bubble Tip Anemone Entacmaea quadricolor 
  • Beaded Sea Anemone Heteractis aurora 
  • Sebae Anemone Heteractis crispa 
  • Merten’s Carpet Anemone Stichodactyla mertensii 
  • The Giant Carpet Anemone Stichodactyla gigantea (acceptable)

However, not all anemones are compatible as some anemones are proved to be incompatible with the three-band clownfish:

Condy Anemones Condylactis gigantea 

They should be added with caution. These are predatory anemones with high mobility. They are not “clown hosting anemones.” Their sting is far greater than that of clownfish-hosting anemones, and any clownfish dumb enough to confront it risks being eaten.

Reef Compatible:

Yes, they are reef compatible. They never bother clams, corals, and other invertebrates. You have to keep an eye on them when using corals as the substitute for sea-anemone.

Usually, everything is good and there is no problem, but persistent observation could irritate the corals to the extent that they retract their polyps and might eventually dwindle because of the constant consideration. It is not a big problem so that you may stop to observe them, constantly observing them whether your clownfish accept them as a good tank mate or not. In a reef habitat, these clownfish will usually avoid any corals save for picking algae from the foot of a reef they have chosen as a host. 

Other hosts have been reported, including 

  • Large polyped stony corals (LPS)
  • Hairy mushroom corals
  • SPS corals
  • Gorgonians, Sea Fans
  • Leather Corals
  • Soft Corals (xenias, tree corals)
  • Star Polyps, Organ Pipe Coral
  • Zoanthids – Button Polyps, Sea Mats
  • Filamentous algae if available. 

A Three-band Anemonefish does not normally pose a threat to invertebrates. 

Predator Tank Compatible: No

Number to a tank: You can store more than a couple, but only one pair would be the mating couple.

How to Breed Three band Clownfish?

In your aquarium, you may keep more than a couple of fire clownfish. Therefore, please remember that only one of them will be a mating couple. Females are the largest in both partners, while males are the smallest. The remaining individuals will continue to exist as immature males. The pairing will happen on its own when the time is right; all you have to do is supply them with a tidy, loving, and safe habitat.

  1. Healthy Diet

    If you need to get things moving faster, make absolutely sure they’re eating a nutritious and calorically healthy diet. Most importantly, you should be sure to feed them a calorie and nutrient-balanced diet two to three times per day. Canned foods are usually less healthy than live foods.

  2. Spawning

    Clownfish pairing is highly tough, and if a female refuses to accept a potential male, while mating, will eventually end up in that male’s death. It is sufficient to nurture a cluster of youngsters and allow them to create their own pairings. It is preferable to keep the pairing couple separate from the remainder of the tank. It’s likely that you’ll keep both the female and the male in the same aquarium, and they won’t get along; it becomes harmful for that male.
    Following the completion of the pairing, it is a fantastic notion to provide the pair with plenty of high-quality, fresh meals. It’s even easier because spawning doesn’t require a sea anemone. These fish are substrate breeders, meaning they prefer to lay their eggs in a flat substrate or cave, such as an inverted clay pot.

  3. Pre-spawning Behavior:

    Leaning away from each other with their ventral surfaces close, leaning towards one another with their dorsal surfaces nearer while scratching their heads, or head standing are all examples of this. Both partners would start cleaning for laying the eggs, location nearby a sea anemone on a rock/coral as the spawning process is nearby. This activity removes debris and algae from the area, allowing the eggs to cling to a clean surface.

  4. Spawning Process:

    The Three-band Anemonefish will reproduce at optimal temperature for the development of the finest quality eggs and larvae. The courtship commences three to five days before spawning. The male has a strange habit of biting the substrate with growing frequency and severity. The female is assumed to initiate courtship by prodding the male or eating the substrates first to stimulate this activity. During courting, the male and female partners become less aggressive as they get older.
    The pair will next bite at the anemone’s tentacles, causing it to withdraw and expose the cleansed region once the area has been prepared. The female will then press her belly against the air and quiver as she pulls her abdomen behind her, leaving a trail of eggs in her wake. She’ll keep doing it until she’s laid all of her eggs. After that, the male fertilizes them right away. Spawning occurs between the hours of 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. and can last up to two and half hours. The number of eggs laid varies by genus in the clarkii clownfish complex; determined by the size of the female, this number might range from 100-2500.

READ  Asian Arowana: The Dragon Fish and a True Legend

Protection of their eggs: 

The eggs will be guarded by the male. The eggs are blown and sucked to keep them oxygenated and free of dirt and fungal infections, and this process becomes more intense the day of hatch. The eggs grow darker and have a silver sheen as they mature. 


Most of the eggs may hatch in 6-13 days, depending on the temp of the water. Around 1 to 1 1/2 hours after dark, the eggs hatch within 2 hours. After swimming into the surrounding water, the larvae enter the planktonic phase, which lasts 8 to 16 days


To acclimate a clownfish, it’s a great practice to keep them in a deep bucket so that they aren’t able to crash out. Follow these steps:

  1. Take a deep bucket and put your clownfish in it.
  2. For the duration of about forty-five minutes, drip-acclimate with a speed of three drips/second. In this time, your fish accommodates the water parameters of the tank. 
  3. When the fish completed this process of acclimatization, bring your fish gently by using a fish-net and putting it into the tank.
  4. Keep in mind, you don’t have to put water (of the origin of your fish) in the tank.

How do you keep Three band Anemonefish with care?

Three Striped Clowns are extremely powerful and easy to care for. Beginner aquarists will have satisfaction with the Three-band Clownfish as a first try at the saltwater hobby. Poor water quality, no matter how “bulletproof,” will still cause illness and disease. If you conduct regular water changes, feed them a range of foods, and keep them in the correct tank with the proper tank mates, your anemonefish will live a long time.

Three-band clownfish prefer anemones in the wild, but they are perfectly fine in the aquarium without them. They will adore their Bubble Tip Anemone, but if any other tank mates are present, they will get aggressive.

The Three-band clown is resilient and easy to spot. They thrive when provided with good water and a well-kept aquarium. Any marine fish subject to less-than-ideal groundwater resources for an extended amount of time will succumb to illness and disease, regardless of their tolerance for it. Fluid changes every two weeks will also help to restore trace amounts lost by the fish and corals.

What could you do to keep your Clownfish from getting sick?

They flourish when provided with good water and a well-kept aquarium. Any saltwater fish subjected to less-than-ideal quality of water for an extended amount of time will succumb to illness and disease, regardless of their resistance to it. Water change every two weeks will also help to restore trace amounts lost by the fish and reef.

If you detect any of the following criteria, be cautious:

  • Anorexia 
  • Strenuous breathing
  • White spots on the body
  • Open-sores
  • Bulging eyes
  • Cloudy-eyes
  • Reddish fins 
  • Frayed and ripped fins

Anorexia is often the first sign of a problem. If your Clownfish refuses to eat, look for indicators of other illnesses so you can begin treatment sooner. The remaining indicators are self-evident and will tell whether or not three-striped clownfish become ill. Bacteria and viruses can enter your tank through live rock, corals, and fish that haven’t been cleaned or confined properly. The simplest method to avoid this is to carefully clean or quarantine whatever you intend to bring to the tank. Providing high-quality meals, clean, high-quality water, and appropriate tank mates are also helpful in preventing illness.It is important to maintain an eye on the symptoms rather than putting the fish to the more difficult solution that is introducing them to harsh medication and anguish.

Common Diseases in Three band clownfish

As these fish are usually robust, the disease is rarely a concern in a well-kept aquarium. However, if they do become unwell, some illnesses can be fatal. Clownfish are susceptible to the same various ailments that affect other saltwater fish, including fungal, bacterial, parasitic, and other infections. All marine fish will become ill if better water quality is not maintained, the temperature swings excessively, or the fish is agitated as a result of inadequate tankmates. A distressed fish appears to be more prone to sickness.

Be careful if you noticed the following Disease:

  • Brooklynellosis, often known as Clownfish-Disease/Brooklynella hostilis (Brook)
  • Marine Ich/Cryptocaryon irritans/Velvet Disease/White Spot Disease Crypt
  • Uronema (Uronema marinum)
  • Oodinium ocellatum (Synonyms: Amyloodinium ocellatum, Branchiophilus maris)

These are mostly parasitic infections.


The easiest to treat is crypt (saltwater Ich), and they’re all treatable if caught early enough. The parasitic skin flagellate Marine Velvet is one of the most common problems in marine tanks. It’s a fast-moving disease that mostly targets the gills. Brook takes 30 hours to kill, but Uronema is one of the shortest, taking as little as 24 hours to kill. When a fishkeeper decreases salinity to treat other conditions uronema develops, so make sure not to lower the salinity more than recommended levels. This parasite thrives in saltwater with a dry density of 1.013 to 1.020. If you’ve had a disease, be sure to treat it with a regular salinity of about 1.023 or a lesser salinity of about 1.009.

Faster Treatment and other 37 percent Formaldehyde solution preparations will work for both salinity levels, however, the lower 1.009 will help with the oxygen content. The percentage of oxygen in the water increases as the salt level decreases. 

FAQs Related to Three Band Clownfish

What do a Three-band clownfish look like?

The base of the Three Band Clownfish is yellow-orange, as are the mouth, belly, genital, and vaginal fins, with the tail turning dark brown or black. They may grow up to 5.1 inches (13 cm) in length.

Is the Three band clown hostile?

They are semi-aggressive in behavior. But, as they grow older, they could become territorial and violent. It might be calm, but it will become aggressive if some other fish enters its area.

What is the maximum size of a Three Band clownfish?

They could grow up to 5.1 inches (13 cm).

Is it possible for female Three-Band clownfish to become male?

No, it’s a wrong statement. Clownfish are born male but have the ability to carry both female and male reproductive organs. The dominant male will transform into a female and the remaining will live as immature males.

What is the first sign that shows a clownfish is being sick?

Anorexia is often the first sign of a problem. If your Clownfish refuses to eat, look for indicators of other illnesses so you can begin treatment sooner. The remaining indicators are self-evident and will tell whether or not three-band clownfish become ill.


Having Three-band clownfish can be really easy for even beginners but you must choose yours carefully. It is important to read the above guide carefully as one wrong step, whether it is to set up the aquarium or to feed your fish, can be lethal. If taken good care of, these beautiful clownfish can live longer than their average life span expectancy. 

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.